Dr. Hiroshi Motoyama bridges the world of the scientific and the spiritual world with authority. He is both a scientist and a Shinto priest. Motoyama is the founder of the International Association for Religion and Parapsychology. In 1974 he was recognised by UNESCO as one of the world's ten foremost parapsychologists. He is especially interested to verify scientifically the claims put forward by proponents of spiritual practices. Several significant experiments have been conducted under his auspices. He has specifically developed a Chakra Instrument which is designed to detect minute electrical, magnetic and optical changes which occur in the immediate environment of the experimental subject. In a typical experimental situation, the subject sat in an electrostatically secure room which was internally lined with aluminum sheeting and shielded by lead sheeting embedded in the front of the body, level with the location of a supposed chakra. During one test on the centres of the stomach and heart, the subject was monitored for a period of three minutes at each of the two locations. Separate readings were taken one minute before a state of concentration, during concentration, and one minute after concentration. Curiously, when an advanced yoga practitioner was tested, the two centres gave quite different results. The stomach centre showed no change in measurable activity during the three-minute monitoring period. However, the heart centre showed a considerable intensification of measurable activity during the period of concentration. This difference corresponded to the subject's regular meditation. The subject did not as a rule use the solar plexus as a focal point for meditation as he suffered from a serious digestive disorder. When working with another subject, Motoyama found that the increased activity of the heart chakra was sufficient to produce a measurable effect which was detected by the photo-electric cell. In other words the activity of the heart chakra was enough to produce a weak but measurable physical light. Moreover the subject was asked to press a button whenever she thought that she experienced the emission of psi- energy. The subjective feelings corresponded to the objectively measured periods of activity. It was experiments like these which were conducted with 100 subjects which led Motoyama to conclude `that mental concentration on a chakra activates it'. Additionally, as an advanced yoga practitioner, Motoyama has himself experienced an awakening within each of the chakras. In the spirit of scientific enquiry he has recorded all his experiences with the detachment of the trained mind. Such reports are invaluable guides to those seeking to understand the dynamics of this path. Such findings and experiences take us deeply into the relationships between energy and matter. Spiritual traditions have long believed that all matter produces an energy field. The existence of such life-fields was once a matter of metaphysical speculation. However, twentieth-century developments have belatedly confirmed what spiritual teachers have taught down the ages. There can be little doubt now of the existence of an energy field, now suitably dignified with twentieth-century terminology: the L Field, bioplasma, the LEF, the Living Energy Field. Kirlian photography has revealed the subtle body of plant, vegetable, tree, animal and human alike. If a fresh thistle leaf has its own luminescence is it really too difficult to believe in the human aura, the Living Energy Field? Unlike a thistle leaf, the human is complex and sophisticated, with specialised biological systems. Simple cell structures produce a generalised energy field. The human being produces a complex and specialised energy field, a living network of subtle energies.  The chakras are significant centres within this living network. The channels which make up this network are often likened to rivers. Like rivers these lines of energy may be blocked by obstruction, drained empty, full and nourishing. Where many rivers meet, a confluence is formed. It is a powerful pooling of energies, a whirling vortex of force. This is a chakra; the confluence where life energies meet. It is the wheelof life. These flowers are the sense organs of the soul. - Rudolf Steiner